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Common Character Traits and Emotional Intelligence of Bikolano and Bikolana Teachers in Selected Public High Schools.


Mharlet C. Bayais,
Angelo Rico T. Moises,
Rolando S. Sicay

Related Institution

Ateneo de Naga University


The present study aimed to investigate and explore on the common character traits and emotional intelligence of Bikolano teachers from selected public high schools using the research design descriptive-comparative and descriptive-correlational for the quantitative part and descriptive-explanatory for the quantitative part. Among them, twelve (12) participated in the depth interview with Photo elicitation also through the purposive sampling. Based on the results, it was found that both bikolano and bikolana teachers manifest positive character traits under domains of commitment to the profession (high), Motivation for self-improvement (high), and knowledge of content and subject matter (average for Bikolano and low for bikolana). The qualitative results showed that common character traits for Bikolano and Bikolana revolve around the following: care for students, interpersonal relationship, dedication and commitment to work and resourcefulness. The findings also revealed that both Bikolano  (46.70%) and Bikolana (46.70%) teaches have an average emotional intelligence. The t-test showed that there is no significant difference in all the domains of common character traits between Bikolano and Bikolana. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in emotional intelligence between genders (t 60)= -2.08, p <0.05). The Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient r revealed that there is a significant relationship between common character traits and emotional intelligence. Further, the study offered implications and recommendations on the results of the present study.




Education has been viewed as a major solution to a country 's problems because it can equip people with the necessary skills, values and knowledge to live a productive life that will eventually contribute to a nation's development. This might be related with the idea that because hope for a country's progress comes from the younger generation, then it is a must that the youth be educated properly. Given this. many countries have greatly valued education.


One of the countries that give much importance to education is the Philippines. Filipinos prized education profoundly for they consider it as a key to attain high level of economic, social status and stability (Dolan, 1991.) The Philippine educational system may be traced even before the settling of the colonizers. Before the Spaniards came. education among Filipinos was informal and unstructured. Children were taught by their parents or tribal tutors of different national training like managing the house and being skilled hunters (Florida. 2006).


During the American times, one of the major charges that happened was the removal of teaching religion in schools. Moreover, the education system was also expanded: seven years in primary schooling, four years of secondary and four years of post-secondary education which we then under the supervision of the Department of Instruction (international Qualifications Assessment Service Government of Alberta, 2007).


For the past years the Philippines followed the Trifochall educational system which include the Department of Education (DepEd), Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The general stages of formal education are as follows. Pre-pnmary level (nursery and kindergarten); six years of primary, four years of secondary education, followed by college education which takes four or more years to finish (Florida, 2006).


With the development and expansion of the Philippine educational system, it has been observed to be deteriorating as time passes by (Dolan, 1991). Problems faced by the education system of the Philippines were very high student-teacher ratio (33 to 65:1); low achievement scores of the students which were proven by the result of the National Achievement Test for high school to SY 2009-2010 which is 46.38% and the lack of schools in far flung areas. Additional perennial problems are the insufficient schools, classrooms, textbooks, desks and qualified teachers particularly in the public schools and rural areas and the issues on quality versus quantity (International Qualifications Assessment Service Government of Alberta, 2007, Stating the Obvious: The State of the Philippine Education Sector, 2010).


Furthermore, alarming events were also observed like graduates lacking in basic competencies for employment because the supposedly 12-year curriculum had been crammed into 10 years. Moreover, the 10-year curriculum produced high school graduates who are below 18 years old. This limits them into entering legal transactions needed for employment because they are considered emotionally immature. Overseas, Filipino workers are also not automatically acknowledged as professionals because the Philippine educational curriculum differs from other countries. Actually, the Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of the three countries in the world with a ten year basic education cycle (Official Gazette, 2012).


In order to resolve the said problems of the Philippine education, reforms have been done by the government. Recently, for the school year 2012-2013, the Department of Education has implemented its K-12 Program nationwide in various elementary and public high schools. The K-12 Program desires to enhance and expand the basic education curriculum with the aim of giving each Filipino a quality 12~year basic education (DepEd Discussion Paper, 2010). The K12 program follows the K-6-4-2 Model where basic education equates to Kindergarten plus six years in elementary (Grades 1 to 6), four years in junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and the introduction of two years in senior high school (Grades 11 and 12) (Quintos & Cueto, 2012).


The new program will surely bring a lot of adjustments The additional two years in high school increases the need of a high school of 50% teachers and facilities (de Dios, 2012) In order to cope with the teachers' demand of the new program, immediate and massive hiring is needed. In the Bicol region alone, DepEd Bicol has hired 903 new teachers aside born the 1, 103 teachers it employed last year(Quintos & Cueto, 2012). Furthermore, more than 60,000 teachers are planned to be hired by the Department of Education next year to finally solve the shortage of teachers in public schools (Pazzibugan, 2012).


One concern with this massive and immediate hiring could be that the qualities or traits of an effective teacher may be sacrificed like their character traits and ability to handle various demands in their profession. The mentioned concern may be valid especially that most of the teachers that will be hired are public high school teachers. Commonly, teachers in public high schools were the ones who experience large numbers of students and young adolescents at that stage. Caissy (1994), as cited by De Leon and Zara (2010), described the young adolescents' emotions as having lack of stability, unpredictable, extreme, prone to moodiness, and tendencies of being fearful and tearful.


With these possible characteristics of high school students, the teachers' traits may become very influential to them. In addition, researches concerning good teaching somehow point to particular personality traits and dispositions like having care, courage and kindness (McIntyre & Battle, 1998', Murphy, Delli & Edwards, 2004; Noddings, 2001, as cited by Bustos Orosa, 2008). Some researches have already looked into the significance of secondary teachers traits on their teaching. An example would be the study of Groulx (2010) on the significance of teachers' personality or traits in teaching and on the performance or learning of the students. The study found that there is a significant relationship between teaching style and personality of band directors. This might imply that if teachers or educators possess good or positive traits, their teaching style might also be effective while if their traits are those which can be considered as negative, their teaching style might also not be effective.


Given the description of young adolescents and the roles of public high school teachers in molding them, it is then interesting for the researches to delve into the character traits of public high school teachers specifically the Bikolano public school teachers. There are already common traits that have been attributed to Bikolanos which are being deeply religious, family-centered, sociable, and friendly (Malanyaon, 2007). Moreover, they are also characterized as "oragon" or good in everything because of their trait as courageous and hospitable (Orgulyo kan Naga Blogspot, 2010). In the Filipino Star News (2012), laudable traits of Bikolanos were cited such as Godliness, cleanliness, perseverance, cooperation and compassion. Though there are several traits that have already been attributed to Bikolanos, researches have not yet explored their common traits particularly with the public high school teachers.


Another aspect of Bikolano public high school teachers that is worth exploring is their emotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence or EI is believed to greatly influence a person's behavior and decision making (Leech, 2007). Emotional intelligence is defined as the capacity to reason out about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2004).


Since the profession of teachers is mostly considered stressful (Johnson et al., 2005; Kyriacou & Sutcliffe, 1977, as cited by Brackett et al., 2010) and that teachers could also encounter strong emotional dealings and possibilities of many emotional demands than other professions (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002, as cited by Brackett et al., 2010), emotional intelligence can help teachers face these challenges.


Moreover, the study of Saltarin (2003) also found that the level of emotional intelligence is affected by age, gender, civil status and position title but not by educational attainment and teaching experience. There is a strong relationship between the profile of new teachers and their teaching performance; and emotional intelligence and teaching performance also have a strong relationship. Thus, emotional intelligence has a substantial effect on how the teachers would facilitate learning for the students.


Essentially, we found the constructs, character traits and emotional intelligence, interesting in relation to how it affects public high school teachers more specifically, Bikolano and Bikolana public high school teachers. The present study is inspired by the desire to gain awareness and understanding of Bikolano teachers' common character traits and emotional intelligence as to enrich the knowledge on Bikolanos psyche. We wanted to identify the character traits and emotional intelligence, its difference between genders and its relationship with each other.


We further hypothesized that there is a significant difference between the common character traits and emotional intelligence of Bikolano and Bikolana teachers and that there is a significant relationship between the common character traits and emotional intelligence among teachers. Furthermore, we aimed to help the teachers in their profession by assessing and improving themselves through the results of the study.








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